Shepherds as Dioscuri?

Still reading 18th century books from Matthew Boulton’s library (or rather copies of books he owned, not the very books themselves…)

This image got me thinking.


Un-illustrated entries in OCRE.

Which led me to this:


And also these rather interesting types with variations on the wolf and twins imagery from late antiquity:

(The female figure grasping Mars’ hand is clearly Venus)

all related types in OCRE.


Liberty and Sunshine

A nice example of the  use of sun/light/rays imagery used in conjunction with the theme of freedom in a non-racialized context.  I particularly like the cock (rooster) used to as a symbol (I believe) of the ‘dawn’ of a new era’ Also rather fun classical reception generally.  Product of Boulton’s mint.


Illustrated type in trade, but for academic reference specimen in BMAG (1885 N 1536.97) discussed Mason 2009:92-93.

Great online exhibition on images of liberty on early American coinage:

French Neo Classical explanation of the iconography, Thanks Delafosse!


What’s Ovid playing at?!

In the Fasti, why does he make up the goddess Muta as a name for Lara in book 2 on the Feralia?  The Romans already had a goddess of silence and she already had her own place on the calendar!

The Divalia of Angerona:

Pliny NH 3.36: It seems pertinent to add at this point an instance of old religion established especially to inculcate this silence: the goddess Angerona, to whom sacrifice is offered on December 21, is represented in her statue with a sealed bandage over her mouth.



InscrIt-13-02, 00017 = EE-09, 00740 = Gordon 00036 = AE 1898, 00014 = AE 1922, 00096 = AE 1953, +00236 = AE 1993, +00144 = AE 2002, +00181 = AE 2007, 00312

[C XII Di]va(lia) n(efas) p(iaculum) feriae diva[e Angeronae quae ab anginae morbo] / appell[atur quod remedia eius quondam] / prae[cepit statuerunt eam ore obligato] / in ar[a Volupiae ut moneret ne quis nomen] / occul[tum urbis enuntiaret 3] / [3]m aiunt ob an[3] / [3]m / [D XI c(omitialis) Laribus Perm]arinis in porti[cu Mi]nucia / [E X La]r(entalia) n(efas) p(iaculum) [fer]iae Iovi Accae Larentin[ae Parentalia fiunt] / hanc alii Remi et Rom[uli nutricem alii] / meretricem Herculis scortum [fuisse dic]unt / Parentari ei publice quod p(opulum) R(omanum) he[redem fece]rit / magnae pecuniae quam accepe[rat testame]nto / Tarutili amatoris sui / F [VIIII c(omitialis)]

Is he playing around with the identity of the Mother of the Lares and her connection with Acca Larentia?  I’m thinking about Coarelli 2003: 12-13 and how he builds on Wiseman 1995.